**Özet Metin**

The analysis and design of the reinforced concrete retaining walls (RCRWs) that are commonly used in practice are one of the important problems in geotechnical engineering and structural engineering. As the overall stability of RCRWs is evaluated, lots of different failure modes based on external and internal stability must be considered together. The design of RCRW with minimum cost is affected by many parameters such as backfill, foundation soil and wall properties. In this paper, a total of 500 optimization problems were separately defined to investigate the effects of different internal friction angles of backfill, surcharge loads, heights of the wall and passive resistances at the front of the wall on the cost of the retaining walls resting on strong foundation soil. For solving these problems, minimum cost designs of RCRW were obtained by using the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. As a result of the study, it was determined that the cost of the wall increased between 31% and 46% for each one-meter increase in height of the wall. As the cost rises by average 12.7% for each 10 kPa increase in surcharge load, the increase in the internal friction angle of backfill decreases the cost of the wall between 13.4% and 18.9%. In addition, the results of the study reveal that the passive resistance at the front of the wall does not affect the cost of the RCRW at the strong foundation soil conditions.

**Anahtar Kelimeler**

Optimum cost design, reinforced concrete retaining wall, artificial bee colony algorithm, parameter

**Özet Metin**

**Anahtar Kelimeler**

**Özet Metin**

Soils are subjected to additional stresses due to the loads transferred by the foundations of the buildings. The distribution of stress in soil has great importance in geotechnical engineering projects such as stress, settlement and liquefaction analyses. The purpose of this study is to examine the shear stresses on horizontal plane below the rectangular foundations subjected to biaxial bending on an elastic soil. In this study, closed-form analytical solutions for shear stresses in x and y directions were obtained from Boussinesq‘s stress equations. The expressions of analytical solutions were simplified by defining the shear stress influence values (I1, I2, I3), and solution charts were presented for obtaining these values. For some special loading conditions, the expressions for shear stresses in the soil below the corners of a rectangular foundation were also given. In addition, a computer program was developed to calculate the shear stress increment at any point below the rectangular foundations. A numerical example for illustrating the use of the presented solution charts was given and, finally, shear stress isobars were obtained for the same example by a developed computer program. The shear stress expressions obtained in this work can be used to determine monotonic and cyclic behavior of soils below rectangular foundations subjected to biaxial bending.

**Anahtar Kelimeler**

shear stress rectangular foundations biaxial bending analytical solution numerical solution

**Özet Metin**

**Anahtar Kelimeler**